Green manure is a term used to describe specific plant or crop varieties that are grown and turned into the soil to improve its overall quality. A green manure crop can be cut and them plowed into the soil or simply left in the ground for an extended period prior to tilling garden areas. Examples of green manure crops include grass mixtures and legume plants. Some of the most commonly used are:

Green Manure Crop Benefits
The growing and turning of green manure cover crops provides additional nutrients and organic matter to the soil. When incorporated into the soil, these plants break down, eventually releasing important nutrients, such as nitrogen, that is necessary for adequate plant growth. It also increases soil drainage and water retention capabilities.
In addition to adding nutrients and organic materials to the soil, green manure crops can be grown to scavenge leftover nutrients following the harvest season. This helps prevent leaching, soil erosion, and weed growth.
Increases the biochemical activity: The organic matter added to soil by way of green manure acts as food for micro-organisms. The organic matter stimulates the activity of micro-organisms and they stimulate the biochemical changes accordingly.

Improving Soil Structure
Some green manures have deep penetrative roots that as they grow open up the soil. This is an advantage on heavy soils as allows drainage to occur more freely and organic matter to be left in the soil and on lighter soils the particles of soil can bind together better so they can hold water better and leaves organic matter in the soil.

Weed Suppression
Green manures crops grow quickly and their very leafy growth smothers weeds. It is like living mulch as it suppresses weeds and retains moisture in the soil. It is good practice to make sure the soil is weed free first. That is why they are very important when areas are left fallow especially good in winter. Adding Nutrients Certain varieties bring to the surface minerals they would be unusable to plants and leguminous green manures absorb nitrogen from the air and fix it in root nodules on their roots so that when it is dug in it becomes available to the following crop. Specific soil bacteria are required to be present but they are usually present in healthy soil. Nitrogen is required by plants as it encourages healthy stem and leaf growth.

Soil Protection
As living mulch it helps to protect the soil from compaction due to heavy rainfall, prevents the leaching of nutrients, and helps hold the soil together. In the summer it will protect the soil from the drying effects of the sun and wind.

Pest Control
It provides habitats for frogs, beetles and other natural predators that like the damp cover of green manures and that feed on pests such as snails and slugs etc. It also confuses certain insects if the green manure is planted between food crops eg Carrot fly flies low so if a taller not too invasive green manure is planted in between rows the fly will be confused and not attack the whole crop.

Resting Soil Some soils need a rest to recover from constant cultivation and by planting with a green manure it will help soil fertility and structure with very little effort. Green manures can be left in for a year or more, but in the case of most domestic gardens/allotments it is generally a winter thing.
Green manures can be left to grow and then periodically cut down before flowering so as to prevent seeds growing. The plant material can be composted in a compost bin. It can be allowed to grow and then dug in and left to decompose – allow 30 days before planting next crop. This can be quite hard work and care must be taken not too plant to soon as some green manures e.g. Grazing Forage Rye releases a chemical that inhibits seed germination.
No dig systems can still use green manures the crop is simply cut down, the foliage is left on the ground to decompose, and is treated as mulch and planted through this layer or just move it to one side to sow seeds. The foliage can also be removed and composted.
Be careful with perennial green manures and grazing Forage Rye as they may re-grow after cutting down. You can kill it off with a light excluding mulch such as black plastic or a crop of potatoes grown under straw.

Making Green Manure

When making green manure cover crops, consider the season, the site, and the specific needs of the soil. For instance, a good green manure crop for fall or winter would be a cool-season grass like winter rye. Heat-loving crops, like beans, are good for spring and summer. For garden areas in need of additional nitrogen, legumes, such as clover, are ideal.
Green manure crops should be turned just before flowering. However, it is also acceptable to wait until the crop has died off. Since green manure crops grow quickly, they make an ideal choice for amending soil prior to spring planting.
Learning more about green manure crops can provide home gardeners with the tools necessary for acquiring the optimal soil quality. The healthier the soil, the greater gardening success.

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